AMCA's History

    * 1900s
    * 1910s
    * 1920s
    * 1930s
    * 1940s
    * 1950s
    * 1960s
    * 1970s
    * 1980s
    * 1990s
    * 2000s
    * 2010s

 

1903-1904

An attempt was made to form a national organization of mosquito control workers under the name "National Mosquito Extermination Society". The participants included such notable entomologists and mosquito control specialists as Wilton E. Britton, Daniel W. Coquillett, Harrison G. Dyar, Ephraim P. Felt, Leland O. Howard, Vernon L. Kellogg, Herbert Osborn, and John B. Smith. This association held only two meetings.

1905

Yellow fever outbreak in New Orleans and Pensacola. Demonstrated conclusively that mosquito control could eliminate this disease. No further outbreaks of yellow fever in the United States.

1912

New Jersey becomes the first state to authorize mosquito abatement districts.
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1913

The New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association is formed.

1915

California passes law creating mosquito abatement districts.

1922

200,000 cases of dengue fever along the Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida.

1922

The Florida Anti-Mosquito Association is formed.

1923

Utah becomes third state to pass legislation authorizing mosquito abatement districts.

1925

Florida legislature passes law creating mosquito control districts.

1927

Illinois Assembly passes legislation (written by J. Lyell Clarke) enabling the creation of mosquito abatement districts. Cook County MADs (Des Plaines MAD and North Shore MAD) were among the first to organize.
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1930

The California Mosquito Control Association is formed.

Western states experience an epizootic event that was later traced to WEE virus.

1933

1000 human cases and 201 fatalities reported in St. Louis from a mysterious disease was later identified as being caused by the St. Louis Encephalitis virus. EEE virus is identified for the first time in Massachusetts.

1935

The Eastern Association of Mosquito Control Workers (EAMCW) was organized in Trenton, New Jersey on June 26. Twenty-five individuals were installed that day as charter members of the EAMCW. At this meeting, the members of the EAMCW elected Thomas Headlee of New Jersey as president, Robert Glasgow of New York as vice-president, and Thomas D. (Tommy) Mulhern, also of New Jersey, as secretary-treasurer.

The business affairs of the EAMCW were handled by the secretary-treasurer, Tommy Mulhern, who resided in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

1936

EAMCW membership increases from 25 members to 37 members.

1938

EEE outbreak in Massachusetts; 38 humans, 248 horses
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1941

The EAMCW membership voted to levy annual dues of $4.00 per year to cover the publication and mailing costs of a formalized booklet, called Mosquito News, which was to consist of quarterly issues. In an effort to help support this journal, advertising was also actively solicited. In March 1941, Volume 1, Numbers 1 and 2 (bound together) of Mosquito News made its appearance. The publication costs of the first volume consumed one-half of the $144.00 operating budget of the association.

1942

EAMCW membership increases to 67 members.

Orlando USDA laboratory received first samples of DDT. First experiments on use of DDT against lice and mosquitoes revealed spectacular toxic properties.

1943

With wartime travel restrictions in effect, the EAMCW did not hold a formal annual meeting.

1944

On March 16, the EAMCW was renamed the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA).

AMCA assumed the responsibility of publishing Mosquito News. Starting with Volume 4(2), Robert Glasgow was appointed as its first editor.

1945

AMCA membership dues increased to $5.00 annually.

War Production Board released DDT for civilian use.

USPHS launched Extended Malaria Control Program. In 1946, the U.S. surgeon general transferred responsibility for anti-malaria work to the newly created Communicable Disease Center (CDC). In 1947, Congress expanded the CDC's anti-mosquito mandate allocating $4.6 million dollars to eradicate malaria in five years.

1947

Perry Ruth and Roland Dorer organize the Virginia Mosquito Control Association.

On November 30, 1948, the AMCA was incorporated as a non-profit corporation in New Jersey. The Articles of Incorporation appear in the 1948 edition of Mosquito News (8:190-192). The original incorporators were Roland Dorer, Robert Glasgow, Harold Gray, Willard King, Tommy Mulhern, TravisMcNeel, H. Duke Peters, Donald Rees, and Lester Smith.

The AMCA published its first special bulletin entitled, The Use of Aircraft in the Control of Mosquitoes. This publication, edited by Robert Glasgow, was unique in that the text of this bulletin was compiled in only three days when some fifty mosquito control experts met in Asheville, North Carolina, in October 1947.

Don Rees led efforts to form the Utah Mosquito Abatement Association.

At the AMCA Annual Meeting in Fort Pierce, Florida, the Board of Directors adopted the policy of holding annual meetings of the association in conjunction with state or regional associations around the country.

1949

Robert Glasgow, who had served the association as the first editor of Mosquito News, retired and was replaced by Donald L. Collins. This marked the beginning of a 24-year term for Don Collins as the journal's editor.

Between 1935 and 1949 the association's business office was located at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ. In 1949, Tommy Mulhern, the association's secretary-treasurer, accepted a position with the California Department of Health and moved to Fresno, California. The association's business office was relocated to Fresno.
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1950

The duties of the association's secretary-treasurer were divided. Tommy Mulhern assumed position of executive secretary. Roland Dorer (Virginia) agreed to serve as the association's treasurer. Dorer served as treasurer until 1953.

1951

After much discussion, the AMCA membership adopted new bylaws.

1952

AMCA Bulletin Number 2, entitled Ground Equipment and Insecticides for Mosquito Control was published with Edward J. Knipling serving as the editor.

California experienced a major WEE outbreak.

1953

Theodore (Ted) Raley succeeded Tommy Mulhern as the association's second executive secretary. The association's business office was relocated to Selma, California, where it remained until the 1970s. Lester W. Smith of New Jersey became the association's treasurer following Roland Dorer.

1955

Illinois Mosquito Control Association was reformed (following a temporary start in 1950). First annual conference was held at the University of Illinois.

Through the leadership of Harry H. Stage, the AMCA launched a "Good Neighbor Club." The objective was to aid individuals in foreign countries who were interested in mosquito control. The aid consisted of sponsored AMCA memberships, subscriptions to Mosquito News, and other literature. This goodwill gesture was supported by voluntary contributions from U.S. based members of the AMCA. By 1956, some 25 individuals in foreign countries were being helped in this manner.

Bulletin Number 3, entitled Mosquito Culture Techniques, was published with Helen Louise Trembley Durkee serving as editor.

Formation of the Texas Gulf Coast Mosquito Control Association and Northeastern Mosquito Control Association. Six years later (1961) the Texas organization's name is changed to the Texas Mosquito Control Association.

1957

In 1957, the AMCA Bylaws were once again revised. The new bylaws established the position of president-elect.

Edward S. Hathaway and Anderson B. Ritter led efforts to organize the Louisiana Mosquito Control Association.

1958

Minnesota legislature established the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District to control mosquitoes, black flies and disease-bearing ticks in the seven-county metropolitan area of Minneapolis and St. Paul.

1959

First recorded human EEE cases in New Jersey, 33 confirmed cases between August 16 and October 15. Also that year, 56 horse cases and 16 EE outbreaks in pheasant flocks around the state. Most of the cases occured in the southern portion of New Jersey.
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1961

The AMCA published Bulletin Number 4, entitled Organization for Mosquito Control, with Harold F. Gray serving as the editor.

1962

Publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring.

1963

Membership dues increased to $8.00 annually.

1964

The AMCA Board of Directors awarded the first and only Harold Farnsworth Gray Memorial Citation Award to Fred Bishopp.

1965

William D. Murray of California appointed as the AMCA's third treasurer.

1968

Membership dues increased to $10.00 annually.

The first and only Dr. Thomas J. Headlee Memorial Award was given to George H. Bradley.

AMCA published a revised, updated edition of Bulletin Number 2 (1952), Ground Equipment and Insecticides for Mosquito Control.

1969

AMCA began publication of the scientific quarterly Mosquito Systematics Newsletter. Kenneth L. Knight served as the publication's editor for the next ten years.
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1970

AMCA published Bulletin Number 5, entitled Manual for Mosquito Rearing and Experimental Techniques, which superseded the previously published Bulletin Number 3. Eugene J. Gerberg served as the editor.

Creation of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

1972

The Medal of Honor Award was created to acknowledge outstanding service in the field of mosquito control, while the Meritorious Service Award was established to recognize outstanding service to the AMCA.

The journal Mosquito Systematics Newsletter was renamed Mosquito Systematics.

EPA bans DDT. Congress passes the Clean Water Act (CWA) introducing the concept of point source pollution while establishing water quality standards. The CWA was amended in 1977 and 1987 (Water Quality Act).

1973

Ted Raley, who served as the association's executive secretary between 1953 and 1973, became the AMCA's first executive director. Raley held this post for one year. During his tenure as executive director, Raley managed the association's business affairs out of his home in Selma, California. The AMCA provided a small stipend to help defray the cost of maintaining the office.

The current official seal of the association was approved.

Donald Collins, who had served as the second editor of Mosquito News since 1949, retired. He was replaced by William E. Bickley.

South Carolina Mosquito Control Association formed.

1974

Tommy Mulhern accepted the position of executive director. The association's business office was moved from Selma, California to Fresno. Mulhern hired Linda Shields Raiche to serve as the association's first full-time, salaried business manager.

AMCA reincorporated in California as a non-profit tax exempt scientific/educational association.

The New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association changes its name to the New Jersey Mosquito Control Association. Formation of Pennsylvania Vector Control Association and the West Central Mosquito and Vector Control Association.

1975

Largest SLE outbreak in U.S. (2,131 cases reported).

AMCA initiated the printing of a quarterly newsletter to facilitate better communications among its members.

Mid-Atlantic Mosquito Control Association formed.

Membership dues increased to $15.00 annually.

Methoprene, the first compound that mimics the action of insect growth-regulating hormones is registered for use as an insecticide by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

1977

The first Directory of Mosquito Control Agencies in the United States & Canada was published. Gilbert L. Challet served as the editor.

Formation of the Georgia Mosquito Control Association.

Formation of the Indiana Vector Control Association.

1978

Tommy Mulhern stepped down as AMCA Executive Director.

Katherine A. Moore wrote and illustrated a children's coloring book entitled, Mosquitoes - presented by Skeeter Mosquito, which was published by the AMCA.

Proposition 13 (People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation) passes in California. Drastic reduction in funding for mosquito abatement forced many districts to make significant cutbacks.

AMCA Board of Directors (BOD) holds first interim board meetings.

1979

William D. Murray was appointed as executive director.

Membership dues increased to $20.00 annually.

A student membership category was created, with the annual dues being half the price of regular membership.

Largely through the initiative of Lewis T. Nielsen and the cooperation of a number of commercial firms, the association established an annual Memorial Lecture and Memorial Honoree Award. This award recognized an outstanding lecturer in the field of mosquito control, while at the same time offering a tribute to a deceased individual(s) who made a significant contribution to mosquito control.

Kenneth L. Knight, the editor of Mosquito Systematics since its inception in 1969, retired and was replaced by Lewis T. Nielsen.

An eight page educational pamphlet containing 24 color pictures was published by the AMCA. This booklet, entitled Mosquitoes and their Control in the United States was compiled by the AMCA's Public Relations Committee, under the editorial direction of Harry D. Pratt.

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory becomes part of the University of Florida.

AMCA Newsletter (November) underwritten by Zoecon. This reflected BOD 1978 decision to solicit advertising to help defray publication costs.
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1980

Tommy Mulhern agreed to resume the post of the association's executive director on an "acting basis."

The BOD created the Presidential Citation Award to recognize those individuals who were not eligible to receive other AMCA awards, but who were eminently deserving of special recognition by the association.

1981

AMCA established the John Belkin Memorial Award to honor individuals who have made outstanding contributions in the field of mosquito systematics and/or mosquito biology.

Publication of Richard Darsie and Ronald Ward's Identification and Geographical Distribution of the Mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. This is the largest financial undertaking of the AMCA (approximately $40,000) to date.

William Bickley retired as editor of Mosquito News. Ronald A. Ward was named as his successor.

1982

Membership dues increased to $25.00 annually.

AMCA published revision of AMCA Bulletin #1 Air Spray (Use of Aircraft for Mosquito Control). AMCA President Richard Axtell wrote to EPA expressing the organization's concern about proposed pesticide label restrictions.

BOD approved Historical Records and Museum Committee recommendations to change the committee's name to "AMCA Archival Committee" and "prepare a 50 year overview of the AMCA" since the "1985 meeting…is the 50th anniversary." Recommendation was made by Jimmy Olson and seconded by Gil Challet.

1983

Report from archival committee contained recommendation at interim meeting (October 2-3, 1983) which recommended "that there be a slide show at the 1985 Meeting at Atlantic City, celebrating the 50th annual meeting, the narrator to be the chairman of the program committee."

EPA registers Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) as an insecticide. In 2009, there are 26 Bti licensed products.

The AMCA Central Office entered the "Computer Age" with the purchase of a Radio Shack Model 16 Computer.

1984

AMCA BOD adopted a resolution at the annual meeting recommending the name of the AMCA journal be changed to Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. The members attending the General Business Meeting approved the BOD's resolution. It was decided to submit the proposal for the general membership's approval through a mail ballot. The resolution was approved.

AMCA BOD established a memorial fund in memory of Dr. Marco Giglioli. The Giglioli Fund was to be used to support publication of papers by foreign authors who could not obtain U.S. funds.

AMCA-EPA Cooperative Agreement to establish a Mosquito/Vector Control Information Network (MVCN). The MVCN was conceived as part of a larger program that was intended to serve as a database on all insect control methodology.

Kentucky Mosquito Control Association organized in Bowling Green; the name of the association changed in 1985 to include the word "vector."

1985

Stuttgart (Arkansas) Mosquito Control Program began operations culminating in a hard-fought campaign to launch control on rice lands based on advances in research. Bill Clinton named Allan Inman, the program's director, recipient of the Governor's Award in recognition of the district's contribution to the quality of life in Stuttgart.

Starting with the March 1985 issue, the journal is renamed The Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association while still retaining Mosquito News as a subtitle on the cover.

AMCA produces two films: Mosquito Control and Biology (27 minutes) and Mosquitoes (10 minutes).

Twenty-four students from twelve states attended the first AMCA – Centers for Disease Control (CDC) training course in Columbus, Ohio.

AMCA published Bulletin #6, The Biological Control of Mosquitoes, edited by Harold Chapman.

Health problems compel Tommy Mulhern to resign as executive director. BOD named Mulhern executive director emeritus and authorized his invitation to all future AMCA annual meetings as an invited guest. James Caton, AMCA treasurer, resigned his post to assume the position of interim executive director.

AMCA President Gil Challet reported that on February 28, 1985, AMCA treasurer James Caton informed him that a serious misappropriation of AMCA funds had occurred. Challet noted that "executive director Tommy Mulhern, who was recuperating from a recent illness and not supposed to put himself in any stressful situation, was deeply shocked by the betrayal in confidence of so trusted an employee." The responsible party was confronted and admitted responsibility. Following the advice of legal counsel, it was recommended that the "responsible party" be allowed to make full restitution to AMCA in order to avoid prosecution.

Seven hundred individuals attended AMCA's Fifty-First Annual Meeting in Atlantic City commemorating the founding of the Eastern Association of Mosquito Control Workers (EAMCW), parent organization for the AMCA, in 1935. Michael Chambers, reflecting a consensus of the Archival Committee and BOD to date the AMCA's foundation to the EAMCW, prepared a review of AMCA's First 50 Years. Jim Hart and Rolland Dorer, who attended the EAMCW's organizational meeting ( June 25-26, 1935), were present.

1986

Aedes albopictus was found in tires stored outdoors in 12 states: Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida and in tires shipped from Japan and off-loaded in Seattle, Washington.

The largest outbreak of malaria in the United States since 1952-1953 occurred in southern California. There were 27 cases of P. vivax. "Many of the patients had slept outdoors near a lagoon where Anopheles freeborni was abundant."

Considerable SLE activity in the South Central Region. Harris County, Texas reported 27 human cases with 5 deaths in the state.

Jack Salmela, director of the Brevard County (Florida) Mosquito Control District was presented the Conservation Award from the U.S. Department of the Interior in recognition of his contributions to the effective management of wildlife resources.

Harold Chapman assumed duties of executive director. The central office was to officially be relocated to Louisiana in April 1986. Delays involved in the move pushed the formal opening to August 6.

John Combs resigned as the editor of the AMCA Newsletter. Jimmie Long of Sam Houston State University assumed the editorship with the August 1986 issue of the Newsletter.

Formation of the Michigan Mosquito Control Association. Organized mosquito work began in Saginaw, Bay, and Midland counties, Michigan in 1974-75 after an increase in SLE cases. Each of these counties formed mosquito control districts.

AMCA Newsletter began to include "News from the Regions" as a regular feature of the Newsletter.

1987

BOD passes resolution to accept use of credit cards.

AMCA joined with 20 scientific and public health organizations in calling for the CDC to take the lead in determining distribution and devising a plan of attack against the Aedes albopictus invasion.

Pacific Region: California Symposium entitled "The Epidemiology of Mosquito-Borne Viral Encephalitides in the United States, 1943-1987" held in honor of William C. Reeves.

AMCA formed a special subcommittee on Aedes albopictus chaired by Margaret Parsons. A CDC task force at Ft. Collins led by Chet Moore launched an Ovitrap Surveillance Program in 50 cities.

Pacific Region: California legislature debated Assembly Bill (AB) 946 requiring that all tires imported into state must be certified pest free.

1988

Mid Atlantic Region: North Carolina completed first open marsh water management program (80 acres) in Onslow County. Dr. Alice Anderson led the project. In Maryland, water management work was delayed because of environmental concerns that questioned the need for control of salt marsh mosquitoes in marshes more than a few miles distant from populated areas.

Dan Ariaz and his wife, P.J., contributed $200 for the unofficial launch of the "Grass Roots Contest" to fund travel expenses of field technicians to attend annual AMCA meeting.

South Central Region: Mississippi formed the State Mosquito Control Commission with the goal of educating people in mosquito control methodologies.

AMCA dues increase from $25.00 to $35.00.

Annual meeting held in Denver included an AMCA Student Symposium.

AMCA President Bruce Eldridge noted William Reeves' concerns about the potential of the "greenhouse effect" to have a significant impact on mosquito breeding and mosquito control problems in the next fifty years.

Pacific Region: California State Legislature and Governor Deukmejian approved AB 4114 requiring all government employees who handle, apply, or supervise the use of pesticides for public health purposes to be certified by the California State Department of Health Services (CSDHS) and meet minimum continuing education requirements. The CSDHS and the Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California jointly prepared a revision of all vector control training and education materials.

Florida's First Workshop on Salt Marsh Management and Research was held at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory. The symposium grew out of the State of Florida's Subcommittee on Managed Marshes chaired by AMCA's Doug Carlson.

AMCA Board approved Environmental Protection Committee's draft for a model public health exemption plan.

1989

AMCA published Supplement #1 to the Journal of the AMCA, The Biology of Aedes albopictus ($5.00).

North Central Region: Michigan Legislature authorized formation of "Pest Management Districts."

AMCA Aedes albopictus committee chair Margaret Parsons announced that a newsletter entitled Tiger Tales would begin publication.

Judy Hansen assumed office as AMCA's first female president.

AMCA President Judy Hansen appeared on NBC's Today Show. Hansen stressed the role of AMCA in developing sound vector control programs. Research and stable funding were the prerequisites for the continued success of mosquito control programs.

AMCA Aedes albopictus committee's Tiger Tales (Vol. 1, No. 1) is distributed in the November AMCA Newsletter. Margaret Parsons headed the committee.
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1990

Alabama Vector Management Society is launched.

SLE outbreak in Florida (226 human cases with 11 deaths).

California Mosquito and Vector Control Association (CMVCA) formed a nonprofit public benefit corporation, CMVCA Research Foundation, Inc., to promote scientific research for the control of disease bearing mosquitoes and other vectors.

The venerable Florida Anti-Mosquito Association (FAMA) changes its name to the Florida Mosquito Control Association (FMCA).

New Jersey governor Jim Florio proposed elimination of funding for New Jersey State Mosquito Control Commission (NJSMCC). The NJSMCC coordinated the state's aerial spray program for counties bordering along the Atlantic Ocean and administered state aid to NJ counties. Tom Candeletti, AMCA's Northeast Regional Director, declared "all state funded water management projects are now in jeopardy" as well as Rutgers University's Mosquito Research and Control Efforts. Robert Kent reported that the governor's proposed cuts were countered with "a continuous onslaught of support from a variety of directions (including several individual out-of-state AMCA members), result[ing] in the restoration of funds for these extremely important programs."

AMCA Board approved creation of associate membership in the association.

1991

EEE outbreak occurred in the South Atlantic Region with 200 horse cases in Florida, 49 in Georgia, 80 in South Carolina, and 5 in Alabama. In addition, Florida had 5 human cases.

AMCA held its first annual meeting with a scientific session in Spanish. Marco F. Suarez and Gary Clark organized the session.

The U.S. EPA registered Bacillus sphaericus (Bs).

Lucas G. Terracina, Director of the Calcasieu Parish Mosquito Control District in Lake Charles, Louisiana, assumed responsibilities of AMCA's interim executive director.

AMCA hired Mark Vinsand as its first full-time executive director.

Proposed changes in bylaws include the election of an industry director. William Zawicki is named the first industry director. Judy Hansen proposed the idea during her presidency.

1992

William Hazeltine (California) and George Wichterman (Florida) represented the association before congressional committees and executive branch agencies. Carl Tanner, of Zoecon Corporation, offered to assist the AMCA in addressing legislative concerns. Zoecon's support ($25,000 per year) continued for five years.

Virginia Mosquito Control Association succeeded in winning the governor's approval for an annual mosquito and vector control awareness week.

AMCA adopted a new mission statement at the annual meeting in Corpus Christi, Texas.

AMCA and Zoecon prepared a questionnaire for all members to determine the impact federal and state regulations have on mosquito control programs. The questionnaire is part of the AMCA 5 Year Legislative and Regulatory Strategy Plan.

AMCA Board approved resolution to engage in legislative advocacy. AMCA Board adopted resolution allowing researchers to submit more papers not only on mosquitoes but "other vectors of public health importance."

AMCA's first full-time executive director Mark Vinsand resigned following allegations of malfeasance; Harold Chapman agreed to coordinate activities at St. Charles office. Lucas Terracina assumed duties of interim executive director.

Bylaws Committee (chaired by Fred Holbrook) recommended and the BOD approved changing the association's name to "American Mosquito and Vector Control Association" (AMVCA) and the journal's name to Journal of the American Mosquito and Vector Control Association. Vote on the proposed changes was to take place at the April 1993 annual meeting in Ft. Myers.

1993

AMCA established a Legislative FAX Network to provide early warning to members of legislation concerning mosquito control matters. 206 individuals joined the network between January and March 1995. An additional 35 individuals requested the AMCA Policy Statements on legislation. 100 people attended the Legislative Workshop at the 1995 annual meeting in Portland.

The name "Asian Tiger Mosquito" was officially established as the common name of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by the American Entomological Society. Chet Moore, Bruce Harrison, and George Craig petitioned for the name change from "Forest Day Mosquito." (In 1995, Ae. albopictus was established in New Jersey with the first reported locations in Keyport, Monmouth County.)

A vote on the proposed name change did not take place at April 1993 annual meeting. Ballots were sent to association's members.

AMCA Public Information Committee (Sally Wagner, chair) developed a prototype of an educational module "Learning About Mosquitoes" for elementary school teachers. American Cyanamid contributed $30,000 for the project.

BOD decides to hold a vote on the proposed name change at the 1994 annual meeting in San Diego. BOD rejected an invitation from Florida to move the central office to Gainesville after the demise of executive director Mark Vinsand disrupted the administrative process in Lake Charles.

Clinton Administration proposed a comprehensive package of improvements to the Federal wetlands program in a document entitled Protecting America's Wetlands: A Fair, Flexible and Effective Approach.

Dan Ariaz (Reno, Nevada) called for the AMCA to "reach out to the smaller programs on the technician's level."

1994

Tommy Mulhern, who was instrumental in the creation of the AMCA and had served as the association's secretary-treasurer, president, and executive director, died.

AMCA hired a second full-time executive director, Robert T. Graham, formerly director of the National Vocational Agricultural Teachers' Association.

The EPA, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration initiated the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP).

1995

The AMCA BOD approved 8 policy statements pertaining to matters that affect mosquito and vector control. The BOD's concerns included: wetlands management; loss, preservation, and improvement of public health pesticides; funding for mosquito research and federal support for vector and vector-borne disease research; the endangered species act; public health and mosquito control; public notification; tire disposal and scrap and used tire shipping and storage; and minor use pesticides.

In summer 1995, Dr. Robert Rose (EPA) informed Douglas Wassmer (Pasco County, Florida) about PESP. In October 1995, the AMCA's Environmental Protection Committee suggested that the AMCA BOD consider participating in PESP. The BOD tabled the recommendation until more complete details of the program were ascertained.

AMCA Scientific and Regulatory Committee recommended that the Federal Wildlife Refuge Administration examine the impact that refuge and system operations might have on the health and well being of human beings.

The AMCA Newsletter's name changed. Commencing with the November/December 1995 issue, the new name was AMCA Newsletter: The American Mosquito Control Association's Vector Review.

The December issue of the Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association contained a final "News and Notes" section. For more than four decades, Austin Morrill prepared this section of the JAMCA.

George Craig, AMCA Past President and University of Notre Dame professor, died while attending annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America.

John VanDyk (Iowa State) established a list server, Mosquito-L, to serve as an electronic mailing list for discussion of topics related to mosquitoes.

1996

The AMCA BOD approved elimination of Mosquito Systematics (MS) as a separate publication. Commencing in 1996, MS was to be included in future issues of JAMCA.

Ralph Barr and Past-President Jay Graham died.

FIFRA was amended to create a new class of Public Health Pesticides. President Clinton signed it into law. This had been one of AMCA's objectives since the late 1980s.

Robert Washino became editor of JAMCA and William Black served as associate editor.

The Tennessee Valley Authority announced that it would discontinue mosquito control work in 1996- 1997. AMCA Legislative and Regulatory Committee calls for the adoption of a resolution opposing this decision.

California Mosquito and Vector Control Association (CMVAC) changed its name to Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California (MVCAC).

The BOD directed Doug Carlson to pursue PESP application.

Executive director Robert Graham resigned after allegations of financial improprieties. Lucas Terracina and Charles Palmisano agreed to manage the Lake Charles office until the new BOD determined a future course of action.

The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 was signed into law. It contained "Minor Use" pesticide provisions. The Delaney Amendment was reformed. It was part of 1958 legislation that stipulated no substance found to cause cancer in humans or animals can be added to processed foods – regardless of the health risk to humans.

Doug Carlson presented a draft of the PESP Strategy Document to the BOD.

Ronald Ward retired as editor of JAMCA.

AMCA President Robert Novak forms a presidential advisory Cyberspace Committee.

1997

AMCA began a campaign to establish a day to recognize and win public recognition of the contributions of mosquito control programs. Dreda McCreary, Stanton Cope, Christine Musa, Rebecca Kline, and Fran Krenick (Public Relations/Education Committee) developed the idea of a National Mosquito Awareness Week each June to commemorate the AMCA's launch as the Eastern Association of Mosquito Control Workers in June 1935. (This idea originated in a conversation between Gary Clark and Warren Stickle on Christmas Eve 1996.)

AMCA BOD approved an agreement with Florida Mosquito Control Association (FMCA) regarding the publication of the FMCA's magazine Wing Beats as the AMCA's operational magazine for mosquito control personnel.

AMCA established an expert witness program in response to the federal fish and wildlife agency's request to provide knowledgeable authorities for advice on public health insects, their control, and environmental concerns. Fifty members volunteered, representing all the national fish and wildlife districts. None of the volunteers were ever solicited.

AMCA retained Warren Stickle of Environmental Strategies, Inc. in Alexandria, Virginia to provide legislative advice.

A major dengue outbreak occurred in Cuba. The last major outbreak in Cuba was in 1981 with 344,000 cases.

The AMCA Publications Committee proposed that JAMCA's name be changed. Possible names included Journal of Vector Research and International Journal of Vector Research. AMCA president Gary Clark and editorial board chair, Jonathan Day, supported the proposal.

AMCA BOD approved submitting PESP application.

AMCA's Strategy Document served as basis of PESP application.

Gary Clark reported that AMCA has 2,039 members, including 261 international members.

In an effort to get the word out about National Mosquito Control Awareness Week, the AMCA Cyberspace Committee proposed a domain name of www.mosquito.org. Christine Musa and Ron Montgomery secured www.mosquito.org for AMCA as an initiative of the Public Relations/Education Committee.

AMCA was approved for PESP "partnership" status. The BOD established a PESP Working Group. AMCA received EPA approval for developing a mechanism for state and regional organizations to participate as a "PESP partner under the AMCA's auspices."

Bruce Eldridge succeeds Robert Washino as JAMCA's editor. The majority of the BOD voted at the September interim meeting to change the journal's name to Mosquito and Vector Research. After considerable deliberation by the BOD and the membership, the membership disapproved the proposed name change at the annual business meeting in 1998 at Sparks, Nevada. At the fall (September) interim BOD meeting, the BOD formally creates an ad hoc Cyberspace Committee to establish policy and enhance the AMCA's presence on the World Wide Web. Christine Musa agreed to chair this committee. The domain name www.mosquito.org becomes the official AMCA website.

1998

The BOD decided to incorporate the Canada Region into the respective adjacent U.S. regions.

When EPA established the concept of a "risk cup" for pesticide classes, AMCA President Dan Ariaz questioned EPA about the potential impact on public health pesticides. EPA responded that the concept did not include public health pesticides.

The Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control published Florida Mosquito Control: The State of the Mission as defined by mosquito controllers, regulators, and environmental managers (known as the White Paper).

The annual meeting program book was divided into two separate sections in order to provide members with a permanent abstract booklet. The program booklet was reduced to a convenient pocket size without the normal historical information, which was placed in the abstract booklet. This procedure was formally adopted in the 1999 annual meeting guidelines.

Dan Ariaz met in Portugal with individuals hoping to form a European Mosquito Control Organization (EMCA). Dr. Norbert Becker drafts the bylaws for the new organization drawing on the AMCA's bylaws.

AMCA co-sponsored the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases held at CDC in Atlanta at the same time as the association's annual meeting. A two day workshop was held following the annual meeting on "Detection of Insecticide Resistance." Gary Clark, AMCA President, appointed Janet McAllister to chair an ad hoc committee on Prevention of Insecticide Resistance.

AMCA mailed a pesticide-use survey to all members. The data collected was used in EPA's product reevaluations.

AMCA President Dan Ariaz, Past President Robert Novak, and President-Elect Bill Zawicki led a group to Washington to expand awareness of AMCA on Capitol Hill. Dreda McCreary organized a meeting with Senator John Warner (R. Va.) who agreed to co-sponsor with Senator Robert Torecelli (D-NJ) a Joint Resolution proclaiming a National Mosquito Control Awareness Week.

Dreda McCreary chairs special ad hoc committee charged with organizing an "AMCA Day in Washington" May 11-13, 1999. AMCA held a Legislative and Regulatory Conference during the Washington Day. A second ad hoc committee is formed to examine the formation of new regions of the AMCA outside the western hemisphere.

AMCA President Ariaz coordinated "Field Day" activities at annual meeting. A traditional "Field Day" took place in which individuals presented displays and reports. For the first time, Dreda McCreary organized an educational "Field Day" in which a dozen AMCA members were "teachers for a day" in a Sparks, Nevada elementary school.

1999

The AMCA Board formalized its "Grass Roots Award" program.

AMCA President David Dame revised and updated the long-neglected association personnel guidelines. The BOD adopted the conditions of service document in 2000.

AMCA received the "PESP Excellence Award for Pesticide Risk Reduction."

At the annual meeting, the BOD established the position of technical advisor (TA). The BOD created the position of TA as an independent contractor who would assume many of the activities that previously were the responsibility of the president. The BOD's objective was to lighten the presidential load and improve AMCA's public relations and committee oversight. Legislative functions were initially prohibited. The TA was directly responsible to the president and held no administrative duties.

The BOD authorized the establishment of a procedural template and guidelines for the annual meeting program and assigned oversight responsibilities to the president-elect. This was done to perpetuate the 1998 meeting format. The meeting format previously had been the prerogative of the incoming, and often inexperienced in this activity, vice-president. The new format included a free breakfast poster session and resolved several program conflicts that had adversely affected previous annual meetings.

70 AMCA members participated in the association's first "Washington Day."

AMCA's first two PESP-funded grants are completed. The grants were: "Production of an education module about mosquitoes and their control for use in elementary schools" ( Jim McNelly, Rutgers); and "Enhanced wetlands mosquito control using GIS environmental monitoring" ( Jim Camy, Butte County Mosquito and Vector Control District). Three thousand copies of the Mosquito Control Educational Game for elementary schools will be distributed.

Pamela Toups resigned as AMCA's chief administrative officer. Marlene Comeaux assumed post of business manager at Lake Charles.

West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in New York City. Animal and human cases occurred in Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York. Wording of EPA household advisory on mosquito control raised concerns that undermined public confidence in actions taken against West Nile vectors.

At the interim BOD meeting in Atlantic City, the BOD voted to move the AMCA office to John B. Smith Hall at Rutgers University. The highly contested move from Lake Charles, Louisiana to Rutgers was to be completed by June 2000 despite the BOD's 1998 pledge to retain the Lake Charles office through 2001.

EPA held a Stakeholders Briefing on Three Public Health Pesticides (Fenthion, Naled, and Temephos) in Orlando, Florida. Several AMCA members and officers, including AMCA President David Dame, actively participated in the fact-finding exercise.
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2000

WNV reported in 12 states: Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia.

The first silent auction was held at the annual AMCA meeting in Atlantic City, NJ.

Rutgers University agrees to provide AMCA with administrative office space in John B. Smith Hall at 174 Jones Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ. AMCA agrees to pay monthly fee of $761.71.

AMCA election results are nullified because of failure to comply with ballot submission rules. Reelection was held in May.

AMCA accepted an invitation from the World Health Organization (WHO) to become a member of the Global Collaboration for Development of Pesticides for Public Health (GCDPP).

EPA's proposed Public Health List posted on the Federal Register included only cockroaches (5 species), lice (3 species), and mosquitoes (7 genera). During the response period allowed for this federal register item, the AMCA BOD challenged EPA's initial list of public health pests. As the list would eventually be used to determine the availability of public health pesticides, it jeopardized the future of pesticides used for the unmentioned pests. Because of the response from the profession, EPA expanded the list as requested. Robertamarie Kiley assumed post of AMCA business manager.

AMCA President David Dame protested to EPA Administrator Carole Browner that mosquito spraying against WNV vectors in the northeast had been misrepresented in EPA's online household guidelines. He stated that the guidelines incorrectly depicted mosquito aerosols as creating large pesticide deposits that need to be removed by householders before turning on air conditioners, using outdoor furniture, children's playthings, etc. As the EPA's online advice was in direct conflict with advisories coming from the mosquito control researchers, mosquito control's credibility was being challenged by the public. EPA responded by revising the online household guidelines before the start of the 2000 spray season, which drew a letter of thanks from AMCA.

Joe Conlon assumed post of AMCA's first technical advisor.

The Missouri State Vector Control Association held its inaugural meeting in St. Louis.

AMCA BOD offers technical assistance to U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) in the fight against WNV. Additionally, AMCA offered to organize teams of retired medical entomologists for short-term local assistance. HHS administrative policies, however, made it impossible for the Department to utilize AMCA's expertise because "[the AMCA] it [was] is a private organization."

2001

WNV reported in 27 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin.

After unsuccessfully approaching senior CDC officials for funds to provide assistance to community decision-makers on methods for controlling WNV vectors, AMCA submitted a formal proposal for approximately $600,000 for a 3-year period. Although judged appropriate for funding, the proposal did not receive a high enough ranking to receive funding.

AMCA held a workshop on emergency response at the annual meeting with the objective of creating a useful emergency response document for use at the community level. Although several participants provided written input for the proposed document, it was not possible to complete the document.

Ed Ruckert from McDermott, Will & Emery was hired as AMCA legislative advocate.

The BOD established a formal lottery procedure to randomize the position of booths in the exhibit hall during the annual meeting. The new procedure and subsequent slight modifications made in 2002 reduced tensions among exhibitors that had developed during prior years.

AMCA unsuccessfully solicited Congress and CDC to embark on the minor use/public health pesticide research authorized by the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). No agency responded to AMCA's request that funding be appropriated for this important research endeavor. The effort to amend the FQPA has continued to present (2010).

Aedes albopictus found in California in a shipment of Dracaena "lucky bamboo" from China. Ae. albopictus initial introduction in the U.S. occurred in 1986.

U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals expanded Clean Water Act (CWA) jurisdiction over application of pesticides in Headwaters, Inc. v. Talent Irrigation District holding that National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits were required for application of aquatic pesticides.

Marty Chomsky agreed to serve as interim business manager after Robertamarie Kiley's resignation. BOD agreed to relocate (on interim basis) AMCA office to Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission (MEC) in Eatontown, N.J. The temporary move does not alter the relationship between AMCA and Rutgers University.

2002

The science and technology committee prepared a policy statement on ethical behavior in the conduct and reporting of research, which was adopted by the BOD.

The California legislature rewrote its 1915 mosquito abatement act. Rebecca Cline, MVCAC Legislative Committee chair, coordinated efforts to place all applicable laws on mosquito control under SB 1588.

As co-recipients of a USDA training grant, AMCA and the University of Florida (UF) prepared the Public Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, co-authored by David Dame (AMCA) and Thomas Fasulo (UF). The manual was distributed to all state pesticide coordinators in both hard copy and electronic formats, with instructions to freely use the information in their own state manuals. Through 2008 the online, downloadable version has averaged 50,000 hits annually.

WNV reported in 39 states.

David Dame prepared a comprehensive procedures manual for AMCA, Guidelines for Officers and Committee Chairs. The document included mission statements, policies, position descriptions and duties for all elected and appointed officers and committees and for BOD meetings, elections, financial procedures, publications, annual meetings, technical advisor, business manager and the official AMCA statement of research ethics. For the first time, all AMCA functions and procedures were collected in a single document.

George Wichterman provided testimony entitled "Responding to West Nile Virus: Public Health Implications and Federal Response" before the House Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources. Joe Conlon provided testimony entitled "West Nile Virus: The Clean Water Act and Mosquito Control" before the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Water Resources and the Environment.

Region 3 of the USFWS (upper Midwest) issued a policy prohibiting treatment of refuge lands for nuisance mosquitoes. USFWS Director Steve Williams suspended this policy for one year following a conference with Michigan state and federal legislators.

Marty Chomsky becomes AMCA business manager.

2003

WNV reported in 46 states.

U.S. Congress passes Mosquito Abatement and Safety Act authorizing $100 million dollars a year in response to expanding WNV problem. Funds were never appropriated.

2004

Bruce Eldridge retired as JAMCA editor. Ken Linthicum assumed responsibility as the journal's editor.

EPA declared AMCA a "PESP Champion for demonstrating outstanding effort in risk reduction."

Sarah Gazi assumed post of AMCA interim business manager when illness compelled Marty Chomsky's resignation.

Publication of Gordon Patterson's The Mosquito Wars: A History of Mosquito Control in Florida by the University of Florida Press.

WNV reported in all states except Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii.

Move of AMCA central office from Monmouth County MEC to New Brunswick was completed.

Death of pioneering medical entomologist William Reeves.

AMCA technical advisor Joe Conlon provided testimony entitled, "West Nile Virus: The Role of Mosquito Control" at a hearing before the House Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs.

2005

BOD named Sarah Gazi Business Manager.

A revision of Key to the Mosquitoes of North America (Darsie and Ward) was published with the financial support of the FMCA.

The BOD approved a management company (Association Headquarters, Inc.) to provide administrative and membership services effective January 1, 2006. Offices moved to Mt. Laurel, NJ.

The BOD allocated $5,000 to the hurricane relief fund for victims of Hurricane Katrina.

The North Central Mosquito Control Association is formed and is represented by the states of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.

2006

As an employee of Association Headquarters, Sarah Gazi assumed position of AMCA Executive Director.

The AMCA BOD authorized individual mosquito control programs to apply to become a "PESP partner under the AMCA's auspices."

Eight state and regional organizations (required to be AMCA sustaining members) enroll as a "PESP partner under the AMCA's auspices."

WNV reported in all states except Alaska and Hawaii.

Ken Linthicum resigned as JAMCA editor.

EPA modified Clean Water Act NPDES regulations in effort to narrow the reach of CWA regulation of aquatic pesticides.

Lal Mian became editor of JAMCA.

2007

EPA Aquatic Pesticide rule went into effect. Eleven lawsuits were filed by environmental and industry groups.

EPA issued Final Rule concluding that pesticides applied in accordance with Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) were exempt from Clean Water Act's permitting requirements.

2009

University of California drops funding for Mosquito Control Research Program.

Thirteen organizations are a "PESP partner under the AMCA's auspices" (2 are multi-state regional organizations, 6 are state organizations, and 5 are individual mosquito control programs).

Congressman Dennis Cardoza, 18th Congressional District of California, awarded the AMCA's Presidential Citation.

U.S. Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned EPA Final Rule that had exempted pesticide applications in accordance with FIFRA from NPDES Permitting.

AMCA and CDC co-sponsored the conference: "West Nile Virus: Ten Years Later" in Savannah, Georgia.

Rutgers University Press published Gordon Patterson's The Mosquito Crusades: A History of the American Anti-Mosquito Movement.

U.S. Sixth Circuit Court of Appeal granted EPA's Motion of Stay of Mandate.

Budget shortfall leads California to furlough WNV hotline workers on Fridays.

Publication of the second edition of the Florida Mosquito Control White Paper. Death of Donald Sutherland, past AMCA president and professor of entomology at Rutgers University.

The North Central Mosquito Control Association expands to include states of Wisconsin, Iowa and the Central Provinces of Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Western Ontario).

AMCA holds the 20th Student Paper Competition for the Hollandsworth Prize.
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2010

AMCA celebrates 75 years of protecting public health.

* "Many individuals contributed to preparing this chronology. Special thanks are owed to Chris Musa, Bill Zawicki, Doug Carlson, Matt Yates, Gary Clark, David Dame, Dave Brown, Sammie Dickson, Dan Ariaz, Henry Rupp, Gill Challet, Scott Crans, Glen Collett, Roger Nasci, Oscar Fultz, John Beidler, Bruce Eldridge, Robert Washino, Stanton Cope, and the members of the AMCA Archival Committee. Mistakes are my responsibility. All praise should go to the men and women who gave their talent and energy to making the AMCA an advocate for the public’s welfare." – Gordon Patterson